Changes Across A City

Urban Land Uses Models

Land Areas:

  • CBD
  • Factorises/Industry
  • Low Class Residential
  • Medium Class Residential
  • High Class Residential

Burgess Model (Concentric Circle Model)

The Burgess Model was developed in 1925 by the sociologist Ernest Burgess. He based it solely on the US city of Chicago. He noticed a distinctive commercial area in the centre of the city and called this the CBD. He then noticed an area of factories which he called the transition zone followed by steadily improving housing as you moved away from the transition zone.

The model is very simplistic, only based on one city and now largely out of date as periods of de-industrialisation and regeneration have changed many urban land-uses.

Hoyt Model (Sector Model)

The Hoyt Model was developed in 1939 by the economist Homer Hoyt. Hoyt based his model on 142 North American cities. Like Burgess he noticed a largely commercial area in the centre of the urban areas (the CBD). However, unlike Burgess’ circles he noticed the development of wedges. He noticed that industry often developed along major transport routes e.g. railways, canals and roads.

He then noticed that the poorer residential areas were focused near the industry while richer residential areas tended to grow further away from polluting industrial areas.

Again there are some limitations because Hoyt only looked at North American cities in a period before mass car ownership. Also like with Burgess’ model many changes have since taken place in MEDC cities.

Bid Rent

The way that property becomes more and more expensive toward a CBD.

Transept Across a Typical British City


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