A hazard is defined as an event that threatens, or actually causes damage and destruction to people, their property and settlements. A natural hazard is one produced by environmental process and involves events such as storms, floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
So it is important to remember these aspects of a hazard:
- Distribution – where do they occur on the earth’s surface?
- Frequency – do they occur regularly?
- Scale – do the events vary in their hazardousness?
- Predicting – Another part of hazards is predicting.
When volcanoes erupt they can devastate the nearby towns or cities with pyro-plastic flows and ash clouds.
When tsunami happens there is a sudden surge of water that moves from the sea onto land devastating building, take cars and killing many.
When earthquakes happen the ground shakes violently and ruptures buildings and kills a lot of people.
Tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons are where hot air and cold area met and hot air rises a spire effect occurs and a cyclone is started the effect of this is the most devastating of them all they can reach wind speeds of up to 300 mph and everything is ripped to shreds and pulled up.
The Topics and Sub-topics for Hazardous Environments are as follows:
Plate Boundaries (Fault Lines)
Types of Boundaries
The Richter Scale
The Mercalli Scale
Focus and Epicentre
Preparation for an Earthquake
Mitigation (or adjustment)
Japan, Kobe (MEDC) Earthquake Case Study
Iceland (LEDC) Earthquake Case Study
The Global Distribution of Earthquakes
Features of a Volcano
Ash, steam and gas
Lava or Volcanic Bombs (tephra)
Types of Volcano
Predicting a Volcanic Eruption
Why Live Near a Volcano
Mount St. Helen’s – Washington (MEDC) Case Study
Mount Pinatubo (MEDC) Case Study
Mount Krakatoa – Indonesia (LEDC) Case Study
The Great Wave Of Kanagawa
Global Distribution of Tsunamis
Destructive Powers of a Tsunami
Japan (MEDC) Case Study
India (LEDC) Case Study
Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes)/Typhoons
Global Distribution of Tropical Cyclones/Hurricane
Anatomy of a Hurricane in the Northern Hemisphere
Formation of Tropically Cyclones/Hurricanes
Hurricane Katrina – New Orleans (MEDC) Case Study
Hurricane Mitch – Central America (LEDC) Case Study